Tyndall effect is defined as the phenomenon in which light is scattered by the colloidal particles. Riken institute, laboratory for exotic nanomaterials, 2. Absorption and re ectivity experiments allow us to measure some combination of 1 or 2, with the remainder reconstructed by the kramerskronig relations. Its content is easy to follow, logical, and with illustrations and equations when and where needed, which are all well explained. We assume for the present discussion that the solid is thick enough so that reections from the back surface can be neglected. However, even in the case where analytic calculations. It is related with the optical properties of lattice vibration. Topics include full and empty bands, compound and doped semiconductors, optical properties of solids, and the dynamics of electron and holes. The simplest group, namely reflection, propagation and transmission, is illustrated in fig. The book starts by providing an introduction to the fundamental optical spectra of solids. Application of spectroscopic ellipsometry and mueller. In more complicated situations, numerical solutions are necessary. The last completely filled at least at t 0 k band is called the valence band the next band with higher.
For example bulk gold appear yellow in colour while in nanosize gold appear red in colour. Optical properties of solids optical spectroscopy theory 19501960 mainly r and t band structure calculations oneelectron approximation semiempirical models microscopic interpretation of the fundamental characteristics of the optical response in solids. Optical properties of solids paperback mark fox oxford. For a full understanding of the electromagnetic theory behind, reading of mark foxs optical properties of solids book is suggested 33. Optical properties of materials nature of light light is an electromagnetic wave or photon. Optical properties of nanomaterials winner science.
The usual way to determine the optical properties of a solid is to shine. Introduction to properties of solids 1 introduction to properties of solids. As most of the properties are similar for simple and nano material only. These properties are observed to change at nanoscale level. The text also ponders on metals, insulators, and semiconductors. Properties of colloids physical, electrical, optical. Feb 28, 2018 properties of optical materials contains all the matter of chapter in callister.
Fox, optical properties of solids oxford university press, second edition 2010 these notes are to be used in conjunction with. Optical properties abstract a consistent treatment of the usual linear theory of lattice vibrations in ionic crystals without the use of the symplifying cyclic boundary conditions is shown to lead to an electric moment associated with each normal frequency which, like the frequency itself, is a quasicontinuous function of the propagation vector. Optical properties of solids optical methods are very useful for the quantitative determination of the electronic band structure of solids. Phys 446 solid state physics information services and. Mark fox optical properties of solids some notes class from. Optics in wien2k light scattering dielectric tensor in the rpa sumrules symmetry the band gap problem. Ppt introduction to properties of solids powerpoint. Optical properties of solids claudia ambroschdraxl chair of atomistic modelling and design of materials. Optical properties of solids department of physics. The basic principles of absorption, reflection, luminescence, and light scattering are covered for a wide range of materials, including insulators, semiconductors and metals. Introduction classifications for solids examples degree of order long range order. Optical properties glasses are among the few solids that transmit visible light thin film oxides might, but scattering from grains limit their thickness mica windows at acoma pueblo glasses form the basic elements of virtually all optical systems.
We can then write the wave inside the solid for this. Written at the graduate level, it attempts a threefold purpose. Optical properties of solids covers the important concepts of intrinsic optical properties and photoelectric emission. Introduction to properties of solids is the property of its rightful owner. This course includes theoretical description of crystal and electronic structure, lattice dynamics, and optical properties of different. The cu 2 o film was modeled, on a glass substrate, as a. All solids do not conduct electricity in equal amounts.
In order to change the shape and size of the solid object, an external force needs to be applied. This course integrates theory of solid state physics with experimental demonstrations in the research physics lab. Ppt introduction to properties of solids powerpoint presentation free to view id. Electrical properties of solids characterisitics of solids. Electrical properties of solids are measured in terms of conductivity.
Optical properties of dielectric and semiconductor thin films 3 analytic solutions can be given if we assume that the incident wave is a pure wave and that the boundary layers are regular. Optical properties ppt polarization waves optics free. Introducation to optical properties and also relation with nano material. Properties of light inside a solid mechanisms behind light reflection, absorption and transmission type of solids and their atomic arrangement. In order to learn more from such measurements, we need to have detailed models of the materials and their corresponding dielectric properties. Ingeneral, throughout this book,however, we will speak of bands for which electrons have the same. The use of polarized light to characterize the optical properties of materials, either in bulk or thin film format, has enjoyed great success over the past decades.
Experiments on optical reflectivity, transmission and refraction provide the way to determine the dielectric constant of the solid, which is related to the band structure. Examples consequence all the physical and optical properties of liquid crystals are governed by the properties of these constituent. It is for the understanding of topics covered in the text book. Doped semiconductors behave just like a metal, except for the lower carrier density. Optical properties ppt free download as powerpoint presentation. Solid state physics part ii optical properties of solids mit. The text then discusses maxwells equations and the dielectric function. This shows a light beam incident on an optical medium.
If so, share your ppt presentation slides online with. Mechanical properties of solids class 11 notes physics. The course will provide a valuable theoretical introduction and an overview of the fundamental applications of the physics of solids. Optical properties the dielectric tensor free electrons. Classifications for solids examples degree of order long range order. The discussion is restricted to intrinsic optical properties.
Department of physics, university of michigan, ann arbor, mi. Optical properties, in particular, seem to spread into many areas, so a wellfocused segment on the optical properties of solids can be somewhat tricky to put together. Properties of optical materials contains all the matter of chapter in callister. Weassumeforthepresentdiscussionthatthesolidisthickenoughsothatreectionsfrom the back surface can be neglected. Optical interactions in solids presents an extensive and unified treatment of the basic principles of the optical properties of solids. Once the light is been absorbed a part of the light gets scattered in all the. Properties of optical materials linkedin slideshare. The book is a dependable reference for readers and students of solid state physics interested in the electronic structure of solids. This fourth year option covers the optical properties of metals, semiconductors and insulators following the treatment given in my textbook of the same name. List of properties 1 absorbance how strongly a chemical attenuates light 2 birefringence is the optical property of a material having a refractive index that depends on the polarization and propagation direction of light. Bulk silicon appears grey in colour while nanosized silicon appears red in colour.
Stefan zollner, february 2019, optical properties of solids lecture 6 7. The light is been absorbed by the particles present in the solution. Contents preface acknowledgments chapter1 introduction l. The adobe flash plugin is needed to view this content. The optical properties of solids provide an important tool for studying energy band struc ture, impurity levels, excitons, localized defects, lattice vibrations, and. The different methods of generating and analyzing the polarization properties of light is traditionally called ellipsometry.
The magnetic and the electric field are perpendicular to each other. This fourth year option covers the optical properties of metals. A material is said to be in the solid state if all the atoms of that matter are densely packed together. This book is an account of the manner in which the optical phenomena observed from solids relate to their fundamental properties. The optical properties of solids provide an important tool for studying energy band struc ture, impurity levels, excitons, localized defects, lattice vibrations, and certain magnetic excitations. Mechanical properties of solids class 11 notes physics chapter 9 inter molecular force in a solid, atoms and molecules are arranged in such a way that each molecule is acted upon by the forces due to the neighbouring molecules. Optical properties of polymers knoll major reference.1505 123 889 67 1500 746 1241 1047 699 709 26 238 704 1413 1200 487 384 1323 1031 1030 166 1066 658 110 1065 264 949 503 1569 1366 685 1117 268 722 844 1557 1402 390 1105 897 40 340 115 573 1075