Grammatik relative clauses and contact clauses 3 exercise 4 fill in the correct relative pronoun who, which or whose. Relative clauses practice relative pronouns exercise 1 2 3 who vs which exercise 1 2 3 which or where exercise drag and drop exercises. Relative clauses defining and nondefining test english. There are two types of relative clauses, defining and nondefining. There are two types of relative clauses in spanish grammar. That relative pronoun cannot be preceded by a preposition or a comma. Intermediate english grammar course relative clauses. An adjective clause and relative clause are the same. Tenses printable pdf worksheets for english language learners intermediate level b1. Clauses english grammar today a reference to written and spoken english grammar and usage cambridge dictionary. The relative clause in the second sentence is called a nondefining clause as it only gives us extra, noncrucial information. Two minor types of adjectival clause are ing and ed clauses. Nondefining relative clauses defining relative clauses these describe the preceding noun in such a way to distinguish it from other nouns of the same class. A relative clause starts with the relative pronoun at the start of the clause like who, which, whose etc.
We can leave out the pronoun if it is the object of. Defining relative clauses are not put in commas imagine, tom is in a room with five girls. Advanced choose the correct response to complete each relative clauses. Relative pronouns relative pronouns are the words that introduce relative clauses. There are two broad types of relative clauses in english. Relative clauses are used to describe the noun naming the process or position when discussing tasks that need to be completed, or explaining how certain things work. They may add meaning, but if they are removed, the sentence will still function grammatically. Relative clauses in advanced english are clauses that begin with the following relative.
Finally, be sure the head noun has a verb after the adjective clause. Esl english relative clauses quiz 5 mixed relative. They contain within their structure an anaphoric element whose interpretation is determined by the antecedent. A defining relative clause also called identifying relative clauses or restrictive relative clauses gives essential information about the noun or noun phrase it modifies, the purpose of a defining relative clause is. In nondefining relative clauses, you cannot replace other pronouns with that.
This free online english language course will teach you about the relative clauses, which are basically nonessential parts of a sentence. Using who, whom, whose and example sentences in english. In the overt case the relative clause is marked by the presence of one of the relative words who, whom, whose. As the name suggests, a ndrc is a clause that provides supplementary information not defining information. That cannot be used as a relative pronoun in a nonrestrictive relative clause. Relative clauses in english exercises advanced level esl. Using who, whom, whose and example sentences in english table of contents using who in englishusing whom in englishusing whose in english using who in english who is used for people. The worksheet is suitable for both classroom practice and selfstudy. They can act as the subject or the object of the relative clause. The english relative clause machine translation archive. Defining and nondefining relative clauses english grammar.
There is a relative pronoun whom, which can be used as the object of the relative clause. English esl relative clauses, advanced c1 worksheets. In this function the relative topic is similar to a word such as. They specify a noun or pronoun in the main clause and are necessary if we want to understand the. The relative pronouns which and that can replace the pronoun it.
A defining relative clause usually comes immediately after the noun it describes. Put the relative pronoun in brackets if you can leave it out. Relative clauses and contact clauses englischtipps. Relative clauses relative clauses referring to a whole sentence relative clauses. An explanation of how to use the relative pronouns where, when, and whose. A dog that eats too much pizza will soon develop pepperoni breath. This type of relative clause merely provides extra information. English grammar relative clauses relative clauses introduction there are two types of relative clauses. They may add meaning to the sentence, but if removed, the sentence will still function grammatically. If you remove a defining relative clause from the sentence, the meaning is changed or becomes unclear. Relative pronouns are used to join two or more clauses and in doing so, form what are known as relative clauses. Add to my workbooks 56 embed in my website or blog add to. It has a subject and verb, but cant stand alone as a sentence.
The relative clause will follow one of these two patterns. Heres a list of all the relative clause exercises on the site. Defining relative clauses also called identifying relative clauses or restrictive relative clauses give detailed information defining a general term or expression. Relative clauses relative pronouns mixed relative pronouns 1 level. It was my exgirlfriend, who was from venezuela, that sold my car. The relative pronoun can define the subject or the object of the verb. In informal style it always comes later in the relative clause. To know which dog we are talking about, we must have the information in the relative clause. In defining relative clauses, the pronouns who, whom, and which are often replaced by that in spoken english. The most important unit of grammatical organization in linguistics is the sentence. Second in importance is the clause and the best way to think about clauses is as part of a sentence. Defining relative clauses 1 in pdf here defining relative clauses 2 in pdf here defining relative clauses 3 in pdf here defining relative clauses 4 in pdf here go to the main relative clauses explanation page here. Relative clause exercise 1 2 advanced relative clause exercise 3 4 intermediate pdf exercises. A collection of english esl relative clauses, advanced c1 worksheets for home learning, online practice, distance learning and english classes to teach abo.
My science teacher is a person whom i like very much. In writing, we use commas around nondefining relative clauses. First, lets consider when the relative pronoun is the subject of a defining relative clause. Defining relative clauses these describe the preceding noun in such a way as to distinguish it from other nouns of the same class. Relative pronouns adjective clauses whose vs of which vs of whom subject exercises. The pronoun can never be omitted in a nondefining relative clause. Relative clauses b1 pdf worksheets english practice. Here you will find many relative clauses english grammar exercises at all levels so you can practice and improve your knowledge of relative clauses. Relative pronouns and clauses in english grammar exercises. Relative clauses are nonessential parts of a sentence. By combining sentences with a relative clause, your text becomes more fluent and you can avoid repeating certain words. We use relative clauses to make clear which person or thing we are talking about. Etheridge, who is english born with irish parents, replaces neil francis, whose injury forced him to withdraw last week. The ability to use relative clauses easily is important to all english learners, but perhaps even more important to those wanting to use english in their workplaces.
The woman who he is thinking about is his girlfriend. I, he, she, we and etc we use who to ask which person does an action or which person is a certain way. You also cannot leave out the relative pronoun in nondefining relative clauses, in the way you sometimes can in. Relative clauses normally begin with who, whom, whose, or that.
A clause of this kind is essential to clear understanding of the noun. A relative or adjective clause modifies a noun or pronoun and is introduced by a relative pronoun who, whom, whose, which, or that or occasionally a relative. English grammar learn how to use relative clauses in. Adjectival clauses a familiar type is the relative clause, introduced by a relative pronoun who, whom, whose, that, which, as in these examples.
Clauses english grammar today cambridge dictionary. I have a friend that spent a year at a british university. The noun that is modified is called the antecedent. Understanding relative clauses a relative or adjective clause modifies a noun or pronoun and is introduced by a relative pronoun who, whom, whose, which, or that or occasionally a relative adverb usually when, where, or why. Relative clauses 2 extra information intermediate b1b2 this worksheet presents the two types of relative clauses used in english relative clauses that give necessary information and relative clauses that provide extra information. In the grammar chart below, you can see the main differences between them. A relative clause will begin with a relative pronoun such as who, whom, whose, which, or that or a relative adverb when, where, or why. Relative pronouns relative pronouns introduce relative clauses. Anaphoric elements in relative clauses relative clauses are so called because they are related by their form to an antecedent. It is sometimes called an adjective clause because it functions like an adjectiveit gives more information about a noun. The relative pronoun can be the subject or the object of the relative clause.
The relative clause in the first sentence in called a defining clause as it defines, it tells us exactly which person or thing we are talking about. English esl relative clauses powerpoint presentations. A collection of english esl relative clauses powerpoints for home learning, online practice, distance learning and english classes to teach about. Tenses printable pdf worksheets for english language learners intermediate level b1 english practice downloadable pdf grammar and vocabulary worksheets. In this video you will learn how to use relative clauses and relative pronouns, who, whom, that, which, whose as the subject or object of sentences. To many people the word whom now sounds oldfashioned, and it is rarely used in spoken english. In this kind of relative clause, we can use that instead of who or which. The information may be quite interesting and important to the larger conversation, but it is not essential for precise identification of the noun. It is important to distinguish between them because it affects the choice of pronoun used to introduce the clause. Note that some of them also function as interrogative pronouns. While providing brief information about a noun, nonrestrictive relative clauses are not used. Relative clauses function as subordinate or dependent clauses and therefore cannot stand alone as complete sentences. English grammar defining relative clause definition. Relative clauses worksheets english worksheets land.
The plan that he is thinking about will take a lot of work. They function rather like adjectives, and are found as postmodifiers in a noun phrase. Defining and nondefining relative clauses relative clauses with prepositions gap fill text short text on a historic english castle with gaps for relative pronouns and. A relative clause is essential when you need the information it provides. If it is the object, you just need to follow the object with the relative clause.
You can do the exercises online or download the worksheet as pdf. Relative clauses learnenglish teens british council. Relative clauses b1 rc005 relative clauses combine the two sentences. Because i am a merciful teacher,i added a small tip about relative clauses just before the quiz. Relative clauses definition and examples in english. In spanish as in english, these relative clauses are not written between commas. We use relative clauses to give additional information about something without starting another sentence. A clause of this kind is essential to the clear understanding of the noun. A nonrestrictive relative clause can be differentiated from restrictive relative clause easily because it uses commas at the beginning and end of the clause and a relative pronoun that is not used in nonrestrictive relative clause.832 877 1013 406 1564 862 787 801 153 1577 1485 62 477 755 413 762 833 173 689 1106 1163 99 1163 731 356 375 1062 837